I agree with you that lack of Koyto membership does not always imply environmental considerations are not in place for those designing new refineries – the US is prime example of this, while we did not sign onto Koyto the US plants met higher most of thier goals under Clear Skies program while all 18 signature Koyto countries failed to meet thiers.
However extending this to countries like India and China who benefited by the “Developing Country” label that exempted them is a farce. They may have them on paper and make best efforts for publicity reasons but cost drivers move projects to lowest resitance level.
The proof is that China is now the #1 polluter and India is now the #3 polluter (just behind the US and in front of Russia). Before Kyoto these countries were #5 & #7 respectively – so its doubtful they have actually “made” a lot of environmental modifications they “considered”.